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Megalodon Shark Gallery - Facts and Information
Megalodon Size vs Tooth Size
Fossil Great White Shark Gallery - Facts and Information
Megalodon Collecting Location:
PCS Mine, Aurora, NC
Megalodon Collecting Location:
Calvert CLiffs, MD
Parts of Sharks that Fossilize
Fossil Shark Gallery
'Megalodon' - this sonorous name probably evokes fascination and respect in every elasmobranch aficionado because everyone knows those gigantic jaw replicas which give us an idea of the truly monstrous size of this shark. There are many myths and speculations about this Megatooth Shark which often is presented as a direct ancestor of the Great White Shark Carcharodon carcharias, almost looking alike but the size of a modern Blue Whale... Some even speculate that these animals are still living today, somewhere in the vast realms of the deep sea. But this is wishful thinking and ignoring existing evidence as one can easily guess. After thorough scrutiny many theories have to be strongly revised and with new fossil finds more and more 'hard facts' see the light of day which change our image of Megatooth completely... Since over 20 years D.E.G. member Lutz Andres is collecting fossil shark teeth. During recent years he has been studying the evolution of certain shark species. Here is his interpretation of what nowadays is under discussion in elasmobranch paleontologist circles.
Fig.1. Fossilised tooth of Carcharocles megalodon. Height: 13 cm. Middle to Late Miocene, Florida/USA. (c) Photo L. Andres
One of them is the name of this shark which roamed the seas many million years ago and explicitly has been marked as direct ancestor and sister species of the extant Great White Shark by naming it Carcharodon megalodon.
Fig.2. Fossil tooth of Carcharodon carcharias. Height: 5 cm. Early Pliocene, Sacaco/Peru. (c) Photo L. Andres
When looking at the tooth morphology of the 'Megalodon' ancestral lineage some typical features for all family members (family Otodontidae) can be found. Especially outstanding is the so-called neck zone or collum, the large transitional area between crown and root on the lingual (facing towards the inside of the jaws) face of the tooth. The collum is an additional area (besides the root) where collagenous tissue helps to fix the tooth to the jaw. Because of the same reason the root branches of the anterior (front) teeth are elongated to resemble a 'V' or 'U' (Fig.1). For a better stability of the tooth itself its lingual face is convex what clearly can be seen in a cross section of the crown. The same is true for lateral (side) teeth, but these features may be less pronounced due to the morphology of the entire dentition. The teeth of the Great White Shark, however, have almost no collum, the roots of upper jaw teeth are nearly rectangular (without well developed root branches) and the crowns are not convex but flat in cross section. They obviously have a totally different morphology and with the exception of their serrated cutting edges resemble the teeth of the fossil mako shark Isurus hastalis. These significant differences caused the paleoichthyologist Henri CAPPETTA (1987) to place the Megatooth Shark and the Great White Shark in separate genera and even separate families.
Fig.3. Fossil tooth of Isurus hastalis. Height 5.4 cm. Middle Miocene. California/USA. (c) Photo L. Andres
Another important clue ponting towards a different ancestry as has generally been assumed is provided by stratigraphical collections made in Peru (MUIZON & VRIES, 1985). The layers containing shark teeth and other fossils belong to the Pisco Formation and stretch along 400 km of coastline south of Lima, particularly at Pisco - Ica - Sacaco. These layers are up to 350 m thick. Geochronological Potassium-Argon dating revealed an Late Miocene age (8.8 mya) for the lower, older layers and a Early Pliocene age (3.9 mya) for the upper, younger ones. The older layers yield a typical Miocene fauna including Isurus hastalis, but contrastingly one finds Carcharodon carcharias instead of I. hastalis in the youngest Pliocene layers. However, two layers of 'medium' age yield transient forms of those two species. Some 'transients' have only a rudimentary serration, present only on the lower parts of the cutting edges near the crown basis, the rest of the cutting edges being smooth. Other teeth are serrated almost up to the crown tip, just a short portion of the tip being smooth-edged. The problem with 'transients' is designating a correct species name because the differences between those teeth are not clear-cut but gradual. In the Pisco layers the acquisition of a serrated cutting edge is exceptionally well documented in very narrow chronological and spatial limits.
Fig.4. Illustration of the development of secondary increase in tooth thickness and loss of the secondary cusps (or cusplets) in the Carcharocles lineage. Top row: Anterior upper jaw teeth. Bottom row: Lateral lower jaw teeth. (c) L. Andres redrawn after : BRETTON, W.K. (1994): Fossil Sharks of the Chesapeake Bay Region.
Isurus hastalis (Fig.3) itself developed from a more slender form as has been shown by stratigraphical collecting in Belgium and the Netherlands (BOSCH, 1978 and CEUSTER, 1976). There, slender narrow teeth have been found in Middle Miocene (about 15 mya) layers and large broad teeth in Late Miocene (about 9 mya) layers as well as corresponding transients. In some cases placing a particular tooth into one or another of the categories - regardless of stratigraphy - is a question of personal preference (see above), but the trend from "slank een weinig verbreed" (slender and a little broadened) to "groot een zeer breed" (large and very broad) is clear. The slender form of I. hastalis most probably is a descendant of I. desori from which the extant Shortfin Mako Shark I. oxyrhinchus (a 'Durchlaufer', a term for a species that has been present for or still is present since a long continuous period of time*) has developed. Therefore the Great White Shark is a member of the genus Isurus rather than a descendant of 'Megalodon'. An unsolved issue in this discussion is the seemingly spontaneous appearance of broad, serrated Isurus teeth (I. escheri) in the Middle Miocene (15 mya). Recently also the idea has been published to place 'Hastalis' and 'Escheri' into Carcharodon (links: www.elasmo.com/heim/bh-i_has-sth.html and ..../paleo/sth/sa-c_car.html). During recent years almost complete dentitions of Carcharodon carcharias (Sacaco/Peru) (link: www.elasmo.com/paleo/sac/sac-gw.html), Isurus hastalis and Carcharocles megalodon (Lee Creek Mine/Aurora/NC/USA) (PURDY et al., 1996) and C. angustidens (New Zealand) (GOTTFRIED, 1997) have been found, providing the possibility to compare teeth from various positions. Before those finds some American scientists obviously saw a problem in combining or separating those species into families.
Fig.5: Evolutionary lineages of Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharocles megalodon. (c) L. Andres
(Click on the image for the full size version)
The preference for the denomination by AGASSIZ (1843/44 status of knowledge!) who simply placed all large, serrated shark teeth into the genus Carcharodon is seemingly bigger than the acceptance of modern scientific proof mostly based on morphology and stratigraphy.
Fig.6. Comparing sizes of 'Megalodon' (length about 13 m) and Great White Shark (length about 6.5 m). (c) L. Andres
(Click on the image for the full size version)
The development of Megatooth Sharks can be traced back until the Cretaceous period as has been mentioned earlier. It is directly linked with the development of other animals. In the Cretaceous not only sharks, but also marine reptiles ruled the waters. This condition changed, however, after the extinction of the dinosaurs (65 mya) in favour of the sharks. Sharks now occupied the ecological niches for predators. Additionally, the basis for a more energy-rich nutrition was created by the rise of marine mammals in the Eocene. Hence, for reasons of functional morphology the appearance of serrated cutting edges in Megatooth Sharks is strongly linked to the evolution of whales, e.g. the ancestors of baleen whales (cetotheriids). During the Late Oligocene (30-25 mya) cetotheriids have been exceptionally numerous at times, the climatic conditions being much more favourable. Temperatures were significantly higher than they are today, tropical and subtropical waters reached much further into the higher latitudes of the polar regions. During the following epoch, the Miocene (25-5 mya), modern baleen whales (Mysticeti) developed and spread more and more. There was an obvious increase in size in whales and simultaneously in Megatooth Sharks which can be explained by a better nourishment of the whales. During the spreading out of the whales they presumably reached cooler polar waters that provided them with a richer food supply to which the whales adapted themselves. The whales were migrating between cool water feeding grounds and warm water breeding grounds. The climate became colder at the end of the Miocene and the beginning of the Pliocene (about 5 mya). The ice cover of the Antarctic polar region grew bigger and the mean sea level dropped. Living conditions and habitat for 'Megalodon', who provably loved warm waters, obviously were restricted to such a degree that the species became extinct during the Pliocene. At least this is what the fossil record says, meaning that fossils of Megatooth Sharks are lacking in the corresponding layers and places. This is where the evolution into a specialised 'super predator' obviously led to a dead end.
Translation: Ralf Michael Hennemann
(*) 'Durchlaufer' (literally: 'runners through') are all shark species which exist unchanged since e.g. the Miocene. Examples are Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), Sandtiger Shark (Carcharias acutissima/taurus), Bluntnose Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus gigas/griseus) and also Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus desori/oxyrhinchus). Some of the fossil species bear different names only because of their occurrence during earlier times, but they are virtually identical with the extant forms. Other species/genera, however, have developed only since the Miocene, e.g. the genus Carcharhinus: 3-5 species in the Miocene, about 30 today!
For much more information about megalodon sharks, please go to the Megalodon Shark Gallery